Limiting Nuisance for Traffic During the Refurbishment of the Heinenoord Tunnel in the Netherlands - In Search of Resilience Possibilities

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The Heinenoord Tunnel in the Netherlands crosses the Oude Maas River as part of the A29 highway, and connects the Hoeksche Waard Island with the city of Rotterdam (illustration 1). The tunnel has an average daily traffic load of 92,100 vehicles. It is very important for both local and national traffic, not least because of the Rotterdam Seaport. The tunnel was opened in 1969. After more than 50 years of operation, the structure is still sound, but a full refurbishment of the equipment is required, because it is end of life.