Optimal use of marginal materials in accordance with Spain's PG-3 standard

Illustrations © Authors

Before 2002, when excavation materials obtained mainly from road construction cuts displayed subpar geotechnical performance, as intended in former Spanish Standard PG-3 (1975). These materials had previously been rejected and replaced by higher-quality materials generated from external quarries. Even though such materials are capable of providing satisfactory overall performance when used as fill, they often had to be discarded.